How the Prize for the sciences are awarded are detailed here: http://bit.ly/18KvDBz
Photos via: Nobelprize.org
For Chemistry, the Nobel Prize has been awarded to Michael Levitt (b. 1947 – South Africa), Martin Karplus (b. 1930 – Austria), and Arieh Warshel (b. 1940 – Israel). They were selected “for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems.”
Their work was pivotal in creating computer programs capable of modeling molecular interactions.
More info: http://bit.ly/19zStyO
For Physics, the Nobel Prize has been awarded to François Englert (b. 1932 – Belgium) and Peter Higgs (b. 1929 – UK), the two men who theorized the existence of the Higgs Boson. They were selected “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.”
This award is a long time coming, as it was first theorized in 1964.
For a detailed explanation of the importance of the Higgs Boson, physicist Brian Greene of World Science Festival explains in this video: http://bit.ly/17ek42I
More info: http://bit.ly/1a8fFPP
For Physiology or Medicine, the Nobel Prize has been awarded to James E. Rothman (b. 1950 – USA), Randy W. Schekman (b. 1948 – USA), and Thomas C. Südhof (b. 1955 – Germany). They were selected “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells.”
More info: http://bit.ly/16trzGl